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By S. C. Todd

Lysias was once the top Athenian speech-writer of the new release (403-380 BC) following the Peloponnesian battle, and his speeches shape a number one resource for all points of the background of Athenian society in this interval. The speeches are generally learn this day, no longer least as a result of their simplicity of linguistic kind. This simplicity is usually misleading, even though, and one of many goals of this statement is to assist the reader examine the rhetorical thoughts of every of the speeches and the customarily hugely tendentious manipulation of argument. This quantity comprises the textual content itself (reproduced from Carey's OCT and equipment criticus), with a dealing with translation. each one speech gets an intensive creation, protecting common questions of interpretation. within the lemmatic part of the observation, person words are tested intimately, supplying a detailed interpreting of the Greek textual content. to maximise accessibility, the Greek lemmata are observed by means of translation, and person Greek phrases are often transliterated. this can be the 1st a part of a projected multi-volume statement at the speeches and fragments, so as to be the 1st complete remark on Lysias in smooth times.

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23 (itself an implicit allegation opposed to the opponent Pankleon). 107 Oiketai are used to tie up a rival in the apartment at Lys. frag. 279 opposed to Tesis §4, but additionally allegedly to grub up the olive-roots at Lys. 7. 19 (cf. Dem. forty seven. fifty two, the place the oiketai are pointed out on the level whilst the competitors have come onto the speaker’s land yet are nonetheless open air his courtyard). also they are came upon as hypothetical attendants in a road fight (Lys. three. 33) and within the context of a problem to torture (Lys. four. 15). total, the be aware appears to be like 134 instances within the Orators, together with 7 in Lysias. 108 different attainable phrases for slaves contain akolouthos (see 6. 21n), paidiske¯ (1. 12n), and doubtless paidion (3. 33n). Diakonos is located seven occasions within the Orators, yet no longer in Lysias. For using pais (‘child’ extra usually than ‘slave’) in Lysias, see 1. 32n. 1. Killing of Eratosthenes: remark §§42–44 143 ὡς µετὰ πλείστων δὲ µαρτύρων (‘so that . . . in entrance of the utmost variety of witnesses’). For the tendency of strength litigants to maximize the variety of on hand witnesses, see Bonner (1905: 39–40, with refs. ) and Todd (1990a: 31). ΜΑΡΤΥΡΕΣ (‘WITNESSES’). As ordinary, we don't be aware of accurately who and the way many those witnesses are, and which of the previous statements they're helping. The the most important facts the following could were that of Harmodios and people others who were unavailable; however it is kind of attainable that the point of interest right here was once on concerns which are much less without delay vital, for example the facts of the individuals of the posse, or for that topic of Sostratos. it'll were particularly effortless to rearrange for Euphiletos’ neighbors to offer testimony that sounded awesome yet in fact carried little weight: was once Harmodios’ proof that he had received again domestic to find a message expecting him, or that Euphiletos had in this case informed him that he had left a message? Rebuttal of rationale (§§43–46) §43. σκέψασθε δὲ παρ’ ὑµῖν αὐτοῖς (‘I would favor you to envision the affair on your personal minds’). Lysias strikes with out indicating the transition from the cost of entrapment to the cost of purpose, which he had formerly hinted at in §4, and which he spends §§43–46 refuting. it's the just one of the fees which isn't specifically attributed to the prosecution; and Lysias’ reaction is composed nearly totally of rhetorical commonplaces. this can recommend for this reason that the cost used to be by no means particularly made, yet that Lysias is elevating it himself with a view to finish on a robust be aware (thus Lämmli 1938: 62–63). it truly is attainable, even if, that the cost was once a true one within the eyes of the jury, yet one that the prosecution couldn't competently installation: if the adulterer was once certainly a relative of the tyrant (see pp. 59–60 above), then there has been a transparent public reason for anyone to kill him; if that is so, then Lysias’ refusal to assault the tyrant at once might most likely be meant to go away to the prosecution the opprobrium of elevating this topic, while through refuting the hypothetical hazard of a personal cause, he can seem to the jury to have thereby refuted the life of any reason.

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